June 22, 1776

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A plot to assassinate George Washington is discovered!

A dozen men were arrested in New York, including the Mayor, David Matthews, and two soldiers from Washington’s own Life Guard, one of which is Thomas Hickey.  The plot was to kill Washington and his officers the moment the British fleet appeared at New York.  Upon learning of the plot, patiriot mobs hunted down the Loyalists, and many were beaten, tarred and feathered, burned with candles, or made “to ride the rail,” which involved forcing a man to straddle a sharp fence rail held on the shoulders of two men, with other men on either side taking a grip on his legs to keep him straight, and to parade the victim through the street.

In order to protect General Washington, his headquarters were changed to City Hall.  Henry Knox and his wife were moved into Number 1 Broadway, while Martha Washington remained at the Mortier house beyond the city.

In La Prarie Canada, General Baron Frederick Riedesel reported to the Duke of Brunswick that the British had recovered Canada and only the lack of shipping prevented a rapid advance into the rear of the American colonies.

In Philadelphia, Congress printed the first American money.

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June 19, 1776

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In Canada, Benedict Arnold notifies General John Sullivan of his garrison’s successful movement out of Montreal, along with some spirits and molasses seized in that town.

In Boston Harbor an armed Connecticut vessel along with several schooners seize two British ships and take 200 sailors prisoner.

Captain Charles Pond wrote the following letter to General George Washington:  I have the Pleasure of Informing His Excellency of our taking two Prises one A Ship of 250 Tons Burthen the Sloop 35 Tons Bound to Sandy hook the Ship from Glasgow with one Compy of the 42d Regt Who was taken by one of Admiral Hopkins’s fleet who took the Soldiers on Board & Sent the Ship for Rhode Island Soon after was Taken by the Cerberus Frigate & Sent her under Convoy of the Above Sd Sloop for Sandy hook. Remaining on Board the Ship 5 Commission’d officers with 2 Ladies & 4 Privates, Prisoners Total 20.  Stores on Board the Ship Crawford 13 tierces of Beef 11 Do of Pork, 3000 Wt of Bread 4 Puncheons of Rum, 100 barrels of Coal, 10 firkins of Butter 1 Cask of Cheese.  On Board the Sloop 15 Cask of Molasses 2 Chests of Dry Goods 1 Tierce & 1 Barrel of Cags of Powder 1 Case of flints, Some Salt Petre.  The Ship is part of the way In the Inlet but at Present is Aground Pray Send Direction About the Prisoners as I am Short handed.”

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June 15, 1776

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In Burlington, New Jersey, the New Jersey Provincial Congress brands Governor William Franklin an “enemy to the liberties of this country.”  William Franklin is Benjamin Franklin’s illegitimate son.

In New Hampshire, the Provincial Congress instructs its delegation to join the other colonies by “Solemnly Pledging our Faith and Honor, that we will on our parts support the measures with our lives and fortunes.”

George Washington writes to Colonel James Clinton regarding the situation in New York:  “You are to repair to Fort Montgomery, and take upon you the Commd of the Posts in the Highlands. use every means in your power to provide your Regiment with Arms fit for Service—one step towards which, endeavour to Imploy an Armourer or two, or more, as the case may require.  Use every possible diligence in forwarding the Works at Forts Montgomery & Constitution, agreeable to late direction’s given to Mr Bedlow, who will furnish you with the same, as it is proposed by the Provincial Congress of New York to recall their Commissioners ⟨from⟩ those Posts & leave the care of them altogether to the Commanding Officer of the Continental Forces and his Orders.  As these are, or may become Posts of infinite importance especially the lower one, I cannot sufficiently Impress upon you the necessity of putting them into a fit Posture of Defence without delay. I have desired that a Battalion, or at least five hundred of the York Militia, may be ordered to reinforce those Garrisons, as well for the purpose of defence as to assist in the Work—these are also to be under your Command.  The whole are to be kept close to duty & not suffered to be absent on Furlough but in cases of real necessity, ⟨and⟩ then not more than two at a time ar⟨e to⟩ be absent from a Company at once.  Review the Men, Inspect the A⟨rms⟩ &ca & make a Report of the State of th⟨ings⟩ so soon as you get to these Posts. ⟨Your⟩ Lieutt Colo., Livingston, is to be sent ⟨to⟩ this place in order to proceed to long ⟨Is⟩land to take charge of the remainde⟨r of⟩ your Regiment posted towards the Ea⟨st⟩ end thereof.  Inform me if there are Barr⟨acks⟩ or Houses convenient to the Fort Mont⟨go⟩mery & Constitution in which the Militi⟨a⟩ ordered there can be lodged. make ⟨Week⟩ly returns of your Strength, and advi⟨se⟩ me regularly of all occurrances ⟨of any⟩ kind of Importance. Given under my hand at He⟨ad⟩ Quarters near the City of Ne⟨w⟩ York this 14th day of June 1776.”

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June 12, 1776

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Congress creates “A Board of War and Ordnance” inspired in part by the failing Canadian campaign.  Americans start a retreat from Canada.

In Williamsburg, Virginia, George Mason and the Virginia Convention adopt a declaration of rights.  This will later be the model for the U.S. Congress when they amend the U.S. Constitution to include a Bill of Rights.

In Philadelphia, Congress appoints a committee to prepare a draft of a working government entitled the Articles of Confederation.

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June 10, 1776

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Congress stops short of declaring “total independence” from Britain, but calls for a committee to prepare a declaration based on the premise “That these United States are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states, that they all are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and all political connection between them and the state of Gret Britain is, and ought to be totally dissolved,” as stated in the Virginia proposal.

George Washington writes to John Hancock, addressing the threats to Philadelphia as well as the internal threats to the cause in general.  “To Congress I also submit the Propriety of keeping the two Continental Battalions (under the Comd of Colonels Shae & McGaw) at Philadelpa when there is the greatest probability of a speedy attack upon this place from the Kings Troops. the Incouragements given by Govr Tryon to the disaffected, which are circulated no one can well tell how—the movements of these kind of People which are more easy to perceive than describe —the confident report which is said to have come immediately from Govr Tryon, & brought by a Frigate from Hallifax that the Troops at that place were Imbarking for this, added to a thousand Incidental Circumstances trivial in themselves but strong from comparison, leaves not a doubt upon my Mind but that Troops are hourly expected at the Hook.  I had no doubt when I left this City, for Philadelphia, but that some measures would have been taken to secure the suspected, & dangerous Persons of this Government before now, and left Orders for the Military to give every aid to the Civil Power—But, the Subject is delicate, & nothing is done in it—we may therefore have Internal, as well as external Enemies to contend with.”

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June 9, 1776

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In Loudon County, Virginia, small tenant farmers petition the Convention for relief.  Unable to sell their harvests of wheat to foreign markets, many become destitute.

John Adams writes to William Cushing, a judge before he once used to argue:  “It would give me great Pleasure to ride this Eastern Circuit with you, and prate before you at the Bar, as I used to do. But I am destined to another Fate, to Drudgery of the most wasting, exhausting, consuming Kind, that I ever went through in my whole Life. Objects of the most Stupendous Magnitude, Measures in which the Lives and Liberties of Millions, born and unborn are most essentially interested, are now before Us. We are in the very midst of a Revolution, the most compleat, unexpected, and remarkable of any in the History of Nations. A few Matters must be dispatched before I can return. Every Colony must be induced to institute a perfect Government. All the Colonies must confederate together, in some solemn Compact. The Colonies must be declared free and independent states, and Embassadors, must be Sent abroad to foreign Courts, to solicit their Acknowledgment of Us, as Sovereign States, and to form with them, at least with some of them commercial Treaties of Friendship and Alliance. When these Things shall be once well finished, or in a Way of being so, I shall think that I have answered the End of my Creation, and sing with Pleasure my Nunc Dimittes, or if it should be the Will of Heaven that I should live a little longer, return to my Farm and Family, ride Circuits, plead Law, or judge Causes, just as you please.”

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June 8, 1776

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In Philadelphia, Congress considers Richard Henry Lee’s world-shaking resolution from the previous day, urging that they declare independence.

In South Carolina, Colonel Moultrie receives notice that General Sir Henry Clinton has landed troops on the southern tip of Long Island.  Moultrie in turn orders American troops to occupy the northern part of Sullivan’s Island.

In Canada, at the Battle of Three Rivers, American troops under command of General John Sullivan have 2500 men and have about 400 killed or wounded.  British General Guy Carleton has 3000 men, and has 8 killed and 9 wounded in action.  The Americans have been decisively defeated in what can only be termed a military fiasco.  The guide was a turncoat and misled them into a swamp.  It took two hours to backtrack.  British General Carleton simply released all of the prisoners, as there was no way to feed them.  Certainly, they believed, the Americans would view this battle as proof that there was no conceivable way in which they could defeat the British Empire in any war of Independence.

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